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Untitled Document

Space Mission Engineering The New SMAD (SME-SMAD) [Wertz/Everett/Puschell, July 2011] (softcover)
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Microcosm Press, Wertz/Everett/Puschell

978-1881883159, August 2011, 1033pgs

Space Mission Engineering (SME): The New SMAD is an entirely new approach to creating both a text and a practical engineering reference for space mission design. Just as space technology has advanced, the way we learn and work has changed dramatically in recent years. SME combines the best features of a traditional unified text and reference covering the entire field, an electronic version that does many of the calculations for you, and the web that allows regular updates and references to the vast literature base available on-line. Among the many features of this new approach are:

— Completely rewritten, updated, and expanded follow-on to the 3rd edition of Space Mission Analysis and Design, the most widely used text and reference in astronautics, covering a great many topics not previously covered, such as CubeSats, Inflatable Structures, Space Economics, End-of-Mission options, Space System Risk Analysis, and new, much more precise formulas for ground station and target coverage.

— Downloadable electronic spreadsheets for most of the numerical tables and plots in the book that let you, for example, calculate all of the critical parameters for orbits about the Sun, Moon, Earth, and any of the other planets, or even new planets, moons, or stars of your choosing.

— An annotated bibliography and references on the web that is updated as new references become available and that shows you where to get nearly all of the references — with direct links for those available at no cost and where on the web to buy copyright books and professional papers not available for free.

— All of the cross-referencing, careful definitions, and thoroughly explained equations that are the key ingredient of any high-quality engineering text or reference, along with the wisdom and experience gained at substantial cost by some of most experienced and knowledgeable space system engineers in the world.

Want to talk to a real human being that can spell astronautics about the problem you need to solve? Send an E-mail inquiry about this book to bookproject@smad.com or astronautics books in general to bookstore@smad.com, visit one of the associated websites (www.smad-sme.com or www.astrobooks.com), or call us at 1-310-219-2700 or 1-888-ASTROBK.

Want to get in touch with one of the authors, report a possible error, or find the reference you need? Call, or send us an E-mail. It’s a small community, and we’re here to help you find what you need to get the job done. For educators, we provide a complete Educator Package with all of the charts, figures, and photos in the book, in color and high resolution to provide the best educational experience for your students.

Contact us at bookstore@smad.com.

Space Tech. Library Volume 23 Springer Microcosm Press

Space Mission Engineering: The New SMAD

James R. Wertz, Microcosm/USC

Jeffery J. Puschell, Raytheon

David F. Everett, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Table of Contents:


1. Introduction

1.1 What is Space Mission Engineering?

1.2 History of Spaceflight

1.3 Spaceflight Technology

1.4 Spaceflight Economics

1.5 The Wide Range of Space Mission Applications

1.6 Sources of More information

2. Space Mission Communities

2.1 Multiple Space Communities

2.2 Differences and Similarities Between Communities

2.3 Changing Missions

3. Space Mission Engineering

3.1 The Space Mission Engineering Process

3.2 FireSat II and the Supplemental Communications System (SCS)

3.3 Mission Objectives and Constraints (Step 1)

3.4 Principal Players and Program Timescales (Steps 2 and 3)

3.5 Preliminary Estimate of Mission Needs, Requirements, and Constraints (Step 4)

4. Mission Concept Definition and Exploration

4.1 Defining Alternative Mission Architectures (Step 5)—Choosing the Pieces

4.2 Defining Alternative Mission Concepts (Step 6)— How the Pieces Work Together

4.3 Introduction to Concept Exploration

4.4 Defining System Drivers and Critical Requirements (Step 7)

5. Mission Analysis and Mission Utility

5.1 Introduction to Mission Analysis

5.2 Studies with Limited Scope

5.3 System Trade Studies and Performance Assessments (Step 8)

5.4 Mission Utility and Figures of Merit— Is the Mission Worthwhile? (Step 9)

5.5 Defining the Baseline Mission Concepts, Revising Requirements and Evaluating Alternatives (Steps 10–12)

5.6 Examples: FireSat II and SCS

5.7 Deciding Whether a Mission Should Proceed

6. Formal Requirements Definition

6.1 The Requirements Definition Process

6.2 Budgeting, Allocation, and Flow-Down

6.3 Introduction to Error Analysis

6.4 Specifications and Requirements Documentation

6.5 System Engineering Tools

6.6 The Role of Standards in Space Systems Development

6.7 Are Requirements Needed?—Capability-Based vs. Requirements-Based Systems

7. The Space Environment

7.1 The Space Environment and Space Weather

7.2 The Earth’s Magnetic Field

7.3 Radiation Belts

7.4 Microgravity

7.5 Orbital Debris

8. Space Mission Geometry

8.1 Introduction to Space Mission Geometry

8.2 Applications

8.3 Looking at the Earth from Space

8.4 Computing Parameters for a Single Target or Ground Station Pass

8.5 Satellite Relative Motion

8.6 Mapping and Pointing Budgets

9. Orbits and Astrodynamics

9.1 Keplerian Orbits

9.2 Orbits of the Moon and Planets

9.3 Spacecraft Orbit Terminology

9.4 Orbit Perturbations, Geopotential Models, and Satellite Decay

9.5 Specialized Orbits

9.6 Orbit Maneuvers

9.7 Summary—The Rules of Practical Astrodynamics

10. Orbit and Constellation Design—Selecting the Right Orbit

10.1 The Orbit Selection and Design Process

10.2 Orbit Performance—Evaluating Earth Coverage and Payload Performance

10.3 Orbit Cost—Delta V Budget and the Orbit Cost Function

10.4 Selecting Earth-Referenced Orbits

10.5 Selecting Transfer, Parking, and Space-Referenced Orbits

10.6 Summary of Constellation Design

10.7 Design of Interplanetary Orbits

11. Cost Estimating

11.1 Introduction to Cost Estimating

11.2 Estimating Tools

11.3 Other Considerations in the Cost Estimate

11.4 Example Space Mission Estimates

12. Space System Financing and Space Law

12.1 Sources of Space Financing

12.2 GAAP, Amortization and Return on Investment (ROI)

12.3 Law and Policy Considerations

13. Reducing Space Mission Cost and Schedule

13.1 The Need to Reinvent Space

13.2 It’s Possible, but It Isn’t Easy

13.3 Counterproductive Approaches to Reducing Cost

13.4 Cost vs. Reliability—Focusing on Mission Objectives

13.5 Principal Methods for Reducing Cost and Schedule

13.6 Avoiding Cost and Schedule Overruns


14. Overview of Spacecraft Design

14.1 The Spacecraft Design Process

14.2 Spacecraft System Design Drivers

14.3 Spacecraft Configuration Alternatives

14.4 Partitioning Spacecraft into Subsystems

14.5 Creating Preliminary Spacecraft Budgets

14.6 Design Evolution

14.7 Examples

14.8 Future of Spacecraft Design

15. Overview of Payload Design

15.1 Types of Space Payloads

15.2 Mission System Concept or Subject Trade— What is the System Measuring or Working With?

15.3 Payload Design

15.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

15.5 Examples

16. Communications Payloads

16.1 Space Mission Communications Architectures

16.2 Communication Link Analysis

16.3 Communications Payload Design

16.4 Sample Missions

17. Observation Payloads

17.1 Observation Payload Design

17.2 Observation Payload Sizing

17.3 Sample Mission–VIIRS

17.4 The Evolution of Observation Payloads

18. Spacecraft Subsystems I—Propulsion

18.1 Basic Rocket Equations

18.2 Staging

18.3 Chemical Propulsion Systems

18.4 Plume Considerations

18.5 System Design Elements

18.6 Electric Propulsion

18.7 Alternative Propulsion Systems for In-Space Use

18.8 Examples

19. Spacecraft Subsystems II—Control Systems

19.1 Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Systems

19.2 Spacecraft Trajectory Navigation and Control Systems

20. Spacecraft Subsystems III—On-Board Processing

20.1 Computer System Baseline

20.2 Preliminary Design

20.3 FireSat II Example

20.4 Modular Approaches to Processing

21. Spacecraft Subsystems IV—Communications and Power

21.1 Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C)

21.2 Power 22. Spacecraft Subsystems V—Structures and Thermal

22.1 Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms

22.2 Spacecraft Thermal Control

23. Space Logistics and Manufacturing

23.1 LEO Communications Constellations

23.2 LEO Monolithic vs. Distributed Architectures

23.3 Spacecraft Manufacturing Integration and Test

23.4 System Mission Verification and Validation

23.5 Multi-Spacecraft Manufacturing

23.6 Alternative Approaches to Space Manufacturing

23.7 Intangible Factors in Manufacturing

24. Risk and Reliability

24.1 Reliability

24.2 Space System Risk Analysis

25. Alternative Spacecraft Designs

25.1 Space Tethers

25.2 Inflatable Structures

25.3 SmallSats

25.4 CubeSats

25.5 Differences Between International Approaches to Space


26. Launch Vehicles

26.1 Launch Vehicle Selection

26.2 History Prior to 2010

26.3 Basic Mechanics of Launch

26.4 Launch Environments

26.5 Available Vehicles

27. Launch Operation

27.1 Worldwide Launch Sites and Launch Restrictions

27.2 Launch Site Preparations

27.3 Readiness Reviews and Mission Dress Rehearsals

27.4 Launch Site Access

27.5 Launch Site Training

27.6 Transporting the Spacecraft to the Launch Site

27.7 Launch Site Processing

27.8 Launch Day

27.9 Post Launch and Early Orbit Operations

27.10 Modernizing Launch Operations

27.11 Common Mistakes to Avoid

28. Ground System Design

28.1 Antenna Services

28.2 Data Accounting and Distribution Services

28.3 Ground System Driving Requirements and Sizing

28.4 Mission Examples

28.5 Technology Trends

28.6 Summary

29. Mission Operations

29.1 Mission Planning and Operations Development

29.2 Mission Execution

29.3 Mission Termination and Post-Mission Activities

29.4 Mission Operations Process Improvement and Best Practices

29.5 The Future of Mission Operations

30. End of Mission Considerations

30.1 Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) End of Mission Guidelines

30.2 Low Earth Orbit LEO Disposal Options

30.3 Non-LEO Disposal Options

30.4 Passivation

30.5 Disposal Planning

30.6 FireSat II and SCS Examples


A. Mass and Power Distribution for Spacecraft

B. Physical and Orbit Properties of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Planets

C. Summary of Keplerian Orbit and Coverage Equations

D. Mission Geometry Formulas

E. Time and Date Systems

F. Coordinate Transformations; Vector, Matrix, and Quarternion Algebra

G. Statistical Error Analysis (web only)

H. Units and Conversion Factors

I. Earth Satellite Parameters

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